Air Doctors provides services for removing mould, asbestos and unpleasant odours from homes and businesses in the Greater Toronto Area and beyond. Below are questions commonly asked by our customers.
Q: When should you contact Air Doctors?
A:You need a specialist when:
- You see mould on a surface;
- The area is damp and moist on a regular basis and the mould comes back after recurring removal;
- People living in the affected area suffer from asthma or other respiratory issues or health problems.
Q: What is mould?
A:Mould spores are everywhere, both indoors and outdoors, and there are many different varieties. Mould becomes a problem for us when:
- There is more mould inside than outside;
- Conditions change to allow the spores to grow and regenerate;
- Certain varieties of mould are found inside.
Moulds are tiny fungi; a collection of organisms which include mushrooms, mildews and yeasts that use spores to reproduce. The fungi are highly adapted to reproduce rapidly, particularly in damp or wet areas, producing microorganisms and mycelia in the process. The resulting mould can look like a spot or a stain, comes in a variety of colours and may not be visible to the naked eye. Mould will often have a distinctive stale odour. When allowed to grow, it can impact indoor air quality and result in negative health implications for building inhabitants.
People encounter mould every day. It ruins food. It causes fallen leaves to decay and wood lying on the ground decomposes due to mould. That hairy, dark-coloured growth on the windows is mould. Paper or fabrics stored in damp areas often exude a stale odour that is caused by the action of mould.
Certain types of mould are good and can be useful to people. For example, penicillin is obtained from a specific type of mould. Some foods and beverages are made by the actions of moulds. Good moulds are selected and grown in a controlled fashion.
Q: What health-related symptoms might we encounter if we have mould?
A:Mould growing inside a home, office or other indoor spaces can adversely affect the inhabitants. The most common health symptoms connected with exposure to mould are:
- Water seeping in from the outside, through the floor, walls or roof, due to a failure in the structure;
- Water from plumbing leaks;
- Moisture produced by the people living in the home, through daily activities like bathing, washing clothes or cooking.
The moisture then collects when there is not enough ventilation to dry it out and eliminate it.
Different kinds of moulds grow on different materials. Certain kinds of moulds like an extremely wet environment. Other kinds of moulds may be growing even if no water can be seen. Dampness inside the material can be sufficient to allow them to grow.
Q: Why are moulds a concern?
A:There are several reasons to be concerned about mould:
Damage to materials or structures is one concern. Materials get damaged or discoloured and over time they are ruined or disintegrated, e.g. mouldy paper and cardboard. Fabrics are destroyed by stains that cannot be removed. Continued mould growth can be indicative of moisture conditions favourable for growth of fungi that cause wood rot and structural damage.
Another concern is health. When moulds are growing inside a building, there may be health concerns, as moulds release chemicals and spores. Health experts indicate that, depending on the type of mould present in a home, the amount and degree of exposure, and the health condition of the occupant, the health effects of mould can range from being insignificant to causing severe allergic reactions and illness.
Pregnant women, infants, the elderly and those with health problems, such as respiratory disease or a weakened immune system, are more at risk when exposed to mould. Consult your family physician if you believe there is someone who may be at risk.
Q: Is there a mould problem?
A:Moulds are always found in the air outside and in all buildings. They come into the home in many ways — through open windows or doors, on clothing, pets, food or furniture. The problem starts when mould grows inside the home. Some mould growing, for example on the window sill but not elsewhere, is not a cause for concern, as you can clean the mould yourself. The presence of mould is a sign that there is too much moisture in your home — a situation which must be corrected.
Q: How can you tell if it is mould?
A:Mould can be identified by discoloration or smell/odour. Discoloration is a sign of mould. However, not all discoloration is due to mould. Carpeting near baseboards, for example, can be stained by outdoor pollution entering the home. Stains or soot may also be caused by the smoke from burning candles or cigarettes.
Mould can be any colour: black, white, red, orange, yellow, blue or violet. Dab a drop of household bleach onto a suspected spot. If the stain loses its colour or disappears, it may be mould. If there is no change, it probably isn't mould.
Sometimes moulds are hidden and cannot be seen. A musty or earthy smell often indicates the presence of moulds. But a smell may not be present for all moulds. Even when you don't notice a smell, wet spots, dampness or evidence of a water leak are indications of moisture problems and mould may follow.
You need professional help to determine why the mould is there in the first place and how to clean it up.
Q: What is asbestos?
A:Asbestos is a natural mineral with unusual qualities. It is strong enough to resist high temperatures, chemical attack and wear. A poor conductor, it insulates well against heat and electricity.
Asbestos crystals become long, flexible, silky fibres, so it can be made into a wide variety of forms. It can be spun into yarn, woven into cloth or braided into rope. Asbestos can also be added to materials as diverse as cotton and cement. This combination of properties gives asbestos performance capabilities that are difficult to match.
What has asbestos been used for?
Asbestos has been used in hundreds of applications and products over the past 4,500 years. The ancient Greeks wove it into oil lamp wicks, funeral shrouds and ceremonial tablecloths. During the 1800s, it insulated the hot engines, boilers and piping that powered the Industrial Revolution.
For half a century, until the 1980s, asbestos was used in office buildings, public buildings and schools. It insulated hot water heating systems, and was put into walls and ceilings as insulation against fire and sound. It has also been widely used in transportation and electrical appliances, frequently mixed with, and encased in, other materials.
Asbestos has also been found in many products around the house, such as clapboard; shingles and felt for roofing; exterior siding; pipe and boiler covering; compounds and cement, such as caulk, putty, roof patching, furnace cement and driveway coating; wallboard; textured and latex paints; acoustical ceiling tiles and plaster; vinyl floor tiles; appliance wiring; hair dryers; irons and ironing board pads; flame-resistant aprons and electric blankets; and clay pottery. Loose-fill vermiculite insulation may contain traces of “amphibole” asbestos.
Q: How has the use of asbestos changed?
A:When it became evident that regular exposure to asbestos on the job involved health risks, the public became more concerned about exposure to asbestos in offices and schools, and, eventually, about all asbestos products. This concern has led to a dramatic decline in asbestos use since the early 1980s. The use of asbestos insulation in buildings and heating systems has virtually disappeared. Residential applications, such as roofing, flooring and appliances, continue to decline.
While alternative products are being developed to replace asbestos, products sold today containing asbestos are regulated under the Hazardous Products Act. Asbestos can be used safely, and public concern has led to improved product design and manufacture. Asbestos is now better encapsulated and sealed to reduce the escape of fibres.
Asbestos is still valuable in many applications because it has been difficult to find comparable substitute materials. For example, it is still an important component of brake lining and clutch facings.
Q: What health problems are associated with exposure to asbestos?
A:Health Canada states that the asbestos content of a product does not indicate its health risk. Asbestos poses health risks only when fibres are in the air that people breathe. Asbestos fibres lodge in the lungs, causing scarring that can ultimately lead to severely impaired lung function (asbestosis) and cancers of the lungs or lung cavity.
Concern for the health of asbestos workers was expressed as long ago as the late 1800s. The risks became more evident in the late 1960s, when workers who had been heavily exposed 20 to 30 years earlier showed increased incidence of lung disease. Occupational exposure is now strictly regulated by provincial governments.
Q: When can asbestos be a problem in the home?
A:Today, far fewer products in the home contain asbestos. Current products that do contain the material are better made to withstand wear and use.
However, frequent or prolonged exposure to asbestos fibres may still bring associated health risks. This is due to with the release of fibres into the air when asbestos-containing products break down, either through deterioration as they age, or when they are cut. People can put themselves at risk — often without realizing it — if they do not take proper precautions when conducting repairs or renovations, as they can disturb asbestos containing materials, for example:
- Disturbing loose-fill vermiculite insulation which may contain asbestos;
- Removing deteriorating roofing shingles and siding containing asbestos, or tampering with roofing felt that contains asbestos;
- Ripping away old asbestos insulation from around a hot water tank;
- Sanding or scraping vinyl asbestos floor tiles;
- Breaking apart acoustical ceiling tiles containing asbestos;
- Sanding plaster containing asbestos, or sanding or disturbing acoustical plaster that gives ceilings and walls a soft, textured appearance;
- Sanding or scraping older water-based asbestos coatings such as roofing compounds, spackling, sealants, paint, putty, caulking or drywall;
- Sawing, drilling or smoothing rough edges of new or old asbestos materials.
Q: How do you minimize the asbestos risks in the home?
A:If you are unsure whether or not the products in your home contain asbestos, have an experienced contractor inspect them. If there is asbestos, the best interim measure (unless the product is peeling or deteriorating) is to seal the surface temporarily so that fibres will not be released into indoor air. If the product is already protected or isolated, simply leave it alone.
It is a complex and expensive matter to remove asbestos, and should be done by an experienced contractor who will take the appropriate safety measures. When disturbing an asbestos product, it is essential to take maximum precautionsto safeguard the workers and anybody else who may be nearby. The work space must be isolated to ensure that asbestos dust remains within the work area and cannot be breathed in by unprotected persons. Everybody who works with asbestos should always wear an approved face mask and gloves, along with protective clothing. Sleeves and trouser cuffs must be taped closed, and clothing must be cleaned separately after use. It is essential that a high level of moisture is maintained in the work area to keep dust and fibre particles from floating into the air.
Air pressure is reduced to prevent asbestos fibres from escaping from the work area, and the exhaust air is filtered. All waste is disposed of appropriately, according to the guidelines of the provincial department of the environment. Other removal methods may be warranted for special conditions and should be conducted by an expert.
- Some loose-fill vermiculite insulation may contain asbestos and should not be disturbed.
- Do not store items near vermiculite insulation, if the insulation can be disturbed.
- Keep children away from loose-fill vermiculite insulation.
- If activities are planned that will disturb vermiculite, consult a certified asbestos removal company.